Куче робот хвърля нова светлина върху това как животните се учат да ходят • Earth.com

Въпреки че животните се раждат с мрежи за мускулна координация, разположени в гръбначния им мозък, научаването на точната координация на мускулите на краката и сухожилията отнема известно време. В началото малките животни разчитат в голяма степен на свързани рефлекси на гръбначния мозък, които им помагат да избегнат падане по време на първите им опити за ходене. По-напредналият и прецизен мускулен контрол, който характеризира възрастните животни, трябва да се практикува, докато нервната система се адаптира добре към мускулите и сухожилията на краката.

За да разберем по-добре как животните се учат да ходят, изследователски екип от Институт Макс Планк за интелигентни системи (MPI-IS) в Щутгарт построи четирикрак с размер на куче робот който постепенно се научи да ходи с помощта на байесов алгоритъм за оптимизация, който непрекъснато сравняваше изпратената и очакваната сензорна информация, изпълняваше рефлексни цикли и адаптира моделите на моторно управление на робота.

„Като инженери и роботици, ние потърсихме отговора, като изградихме робот, който има рефлекси точно като животно и се учи от грешките“, каза водещият автор на изследването Феликс Руперт, бивш докторант в MPI-IS. „Ако едно животно се спъне, това грешка ли е? Не и ако се случи веднъж. Но ако се спъва често, това ни дава мярка за това колко добре ходи роботът.

Алгоритъмът за обучение, който Dr. Ruppert и неговият екип конструираха и симулираха контролните параметри на централен генератор на модели (CPG), както и рефлексите, които характеризират живите същества. При животните тези CPG са мрежи от неврони в гръбначния мозък, които произвеждат периодични мускулни контракции без вход от мозъка и подпомагат генерирането на ритмични задачи като ходене, храносмилане или мигане.

Докато животното ходи по плоски повърхности, CPG обикновено са достатъчни, за да контролират сигналите за движение от гръбначния мозък. Ако обаче се спъне, рефлексите се включват и коригират моделите на движение, за да предпазят животното от падане. Докато при новородените животни CPG все още не са настроени достатъчно добре и животните често се спъват наоколо, те бързо научават как техните CPG и рефлекси контролират мускулите и сухожилията на краката. Като имитира тези биологични механизми, кучето робот, което учените конструираха, надмина животните по това колко бързо се научи да ходи – за около един час.

„Нашият робот на практика е „роден“, без да знае нищо за анатомията на краката си или как работят“, каза д-р. Рупърт обясни. „CPG прилича на вграден автоматичен ходещ интелект, който природата предоставя и който сме прехвърлили на робота. Компютърът произвежда сигнали, които управляват двигателите на краката, и роботът първоначално ходи и се спъва.

„Данните се връщат от сензорите към виртуалния гръбначен мозък, където данните от сензорите и CPG се сравняват. Ако данните от сензора не съвпадат с очакваните данни, алгоритъмът за обучение променя поведението при ходене, докато роботът върви добре и без да се спъва. Промяната на CPG изхода, като същевременно се поддържат рефлексите активни и се наблюдава препъването на робота, е основна част от процеса на обучение.“

„Не можем лесно да изследваме гръбначния мозък на живо животно. Но можем да моделираме такъв в робота”, добави съавторът на изследването Александър Бадри-Спрьовиц, експерт по биомеханика в MPI-IS.

„Ние знаем, че тези CPG съществуват в много животни. Знаем, че рефлексите са вградени; но как можем да комбинираме и двете, така че животните да научат движения с рефлекси и CPG? Това е фундаментално изследване в пресечната точка между роботиката и биологията. Роботизираният модел ни дава отговори на въпроси, на които само биологията не може да отговори“, заключи той.

Изследването е публикувано в сп Природен машинен интелект.

Кредит за изображение: Феликс Руперт, Dynamic Locomotion Group в MPI-IS

от Андрей Йонеску, Earth.com Щатен писател

!function (f, b, e, v, n, t, s) {
if (f.fbq) return; n = f.fbq = function () {
n.callMethod ?
n.callMethod.apply(n, arguments) : n.queue.push(arguments)
};
if (!f._fbq) f._fbq = n; n.push = n; n.loaded = !0; n.version = ‘2.0’;
n.queue = []; t = b.createElement(e); t.async = !0;
t.src = v; s = b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];
s.parentNode.insertBefore(t, s)
}(window, document, ‘script’,
‘https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js’);
fbq(‘init’, ‘739820399903214’);
fbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);
{“props”:{“ads”:{“global”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Ads: 10941034922 –u003ernu003cscript async src=”https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtag/js?id=AW-10941034922″u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-10941034922’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript src=”//run.crtx.info/track.min.js” id=”ADRIZER_JS” data-domain=”earth.com”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Analytics –u003ernu003cscript async src=”https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtag/js?id=UA-53482295-3″u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window.pg = window.pg || []; pg.acq = pg.acq || []; // build consent queuern pg.acq.push(function () {rn if (window.attachEvent) {rn window.attachEvent(“onload”, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘https://www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-KZMXMGW’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn console.log(body)rn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn });rn } else {rn document.addEventListener(‘DOMContentLoaded’, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘https://www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-KZMXMGW’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn }, false);rn }rn });rnrnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscriptu003ern window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag() { dataLayer.push(arguments); }rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘UA-53482295-3’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern if (window.attachEvent) {rn window.attachEvent(“onload”, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘https://www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-KZMXMGW’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn console.log(body)rn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn });rn } else {rn document.addEventListener(‘DOMContentLoaded’, function () {rn var body = document.getElementsByTagName(‘body’)[0];rn var noscript = document.createElement(‘noscript’);rn var iframe = document.createElement(‘iframe’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘src’, ‘https://www.googletagmanager.com/ns.html?id=GTM-KZMXMGW’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘height’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘width’, ‘0’);rn iframe.setAttribute(‘style’, “display:none;visibility:hidden”);rnrn noscript.appendChild(iframe);rnrn body.insertBefore(noscript, body.children[0]);rn }, false);rn }rnrnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.assertive = {rn debug: true, // for dynamic debug see: https://suite.assertiveyield.com/docs/tracking-client#debug-modern entityId: “RvkSvSy8HBpzLkExm”,rn analytics: {rn sampleRate: 1, // 1 = all sessions are tracked, 0.5 = 50% of the sessions are tracked…rn custom: {rn // optional dimensions for custom data, they expect null or stringrn layout: null,rn userState: null,rn custom_1: null,rn custom_2: null,rn custom_3: null,rn custom_4: null,rn custom_5: null,rn custom_6: null,rn custom_7: null,rn custom_8: null,rn custom_9: null,rn },rn },rn predict: {rn enabled: true,rntttentityId: ‘RvkSvSy8HBpzLkExm’,rn },rn hash: {rn generator: “server”,rn values: 5000,rn key: function() {rn return [localStorage.getItem(“ay_utm_s”)].join(“|”);rn },rn },rn };rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript src=”https://RvkSvSy8HBpzLkExm.ay.delivery/client-v2.js” asyncu003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern addEventListener(‘assertive_predictedRevenue’, function(e) {rn if (typeof fbq === undefined) return;rn var transactionId = e.data.meta.impressionUUID;rn fbq(‘track’, ‘Purchase’, {rn currency: “USD”,rn value: e.data.predictedRevenueCPM.impression,rn transactionId: transactionIdrn }); rn fbq(‘trackCustom’, ‘VV’, {rn currency: “USD”,rn value: e.data.predictedRevenueCPM.session / 1000,rn transactionId: transactionIdrn });rn }, false);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Google Tag Manager –u003ernu003cscriptu003e(function(w,d,s,l,i){w[l]=w[l]||[];w[l].push({‘gtm.start’:rnnew Date().getTime(),event:’gtm.js’});var f=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0],rnj=d.createElement(s),dl=l!=’dataLayer’?’u0026l=”+l:”‘;j.async=true;j.src=rn’https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtm.js?id=’+i+dl;f.parentNode.insertBefore(j,f);rn})(window,document,’script’,’dataLayer’,’GTM-KZMXMGW’);u003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End Google Tag Manager –u003ernu003c!– Facebook Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscriptu003ern !function (f, b, e, v, n, t, s) {rn if (f.fbq) return; n = f.fbq = function () {rn n.callMethod ?rn n.callMethod.apply(n, arguments) : n.queue.push(arguments)rn };rn if (!f._fbq) f._fbq = n; n.push = n; n.loaded = !0; n.version = ‘2.0’;rn n.queue = []; t = b.createElement(e); t.async = !0;rn t.src = v; s = b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];rn s.parentNode.insertBefore(t, s)rn }(window, document, ‘script’,rn ‘https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js’);rn fbq(‘init’, ‘739820399903214’);rn fbq(‘track’, ‘PageView’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cnoscriptu003ern u003cimg height=”1″ width=”1″ src=”https://www.facebook.com/tr?id=739820399903214u0026ev=PageViewrnu0026noscript=1″ /u003ernu003c/noscriptu003ernu003c!– End Facebook Pixel Code –u003ernu003c!– Global site tag (gtag.js) – Google Ads: 782118155 –u003ernu003cscript async src=”https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtag/js?id=AW-782118155″u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || [];rn function gtag(){dataLayer.push(arguments);}rn gtag(‘js’, new Date());rnrn gtag(‘config’, ‘AW-782118155’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Event snippet for Website traffic conversion page –u003ernu003cscriptu003ern gtag(‘event’, ‘conversion’, {‘send_to’: ‘AW-782118155/XMJKCM2smucBEIva-PQC’});rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ernfunction e(e){var t=!(arguments.lengthu003e1u0026u0026void 0!==arguments[1])||arguments[1],c=document.createElement(“script”);c.src=e,t?c.type=”module”:(c.async=!0,c.type=”text/javascript”,c.setAttribute(“nomodule”,””));var n=document.getElementsByTagName(“script”)[0];n.parentNode.insertBefore(c,n)}function t(t,c,n){var a,o,r;null!==(a=t.marfeel)u0026u0026void 0!==a||(t.marfeel={}),null!==(o=(r=t.marfeel).cmd)u0026u0026void 0!==o||(r.cmd=[]),t.marfeel.config=n,t.marfeel.config.accountId=c;var i=”https://sdk.mrf.io/statics”;e(“”.concat(i,”/marfeel-sdk.js?id=”).concat(c),!0),e(“”.concat(i,”/marfeel-sdk.es5.js?id=”).concat(c),!1)}!function(e,c){var n=arguments.lengthu003e2u0026u0026void 0!==arguments[2]?arguments[2]:{};t(e,c,n)}(window,302 /*accountId*/,{} /*config*/);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscriptu003ern window.teads_analytics = window.teads_analytics || {};rn window.teads_analytics.analytics_tag_id = “PUB_14901”;rn window.teads_analytics.share = window.teads_analytics.share || function() {rn ;(window.teads_analytics.shared_data = window.teads_analytics.shared_data || []).push(arguments)rn };rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript async src=”https://a.teads.tv/analytics/tag.js”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1437223});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1437223/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1437222});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1437222/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1437221});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1437221/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00fa8eaac0dfae70064862256776cda0e8′,’00d78466f70d033848be878a1459fcda52’,’0024811acaa0e70f584db9a4d533ea15c4’,’009fa06099896b78b8dc4c0cac3a95bcc0’,’000fa7c606aa56bbb4f7812d157575a49f’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”}}},”home”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cmeta name=”google-site-verification” content=”RBD8cTn0oeDOkXysFhZS3MFkeAN98Sm88j5AayjvUk8″ /u003ernu003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”interstitial-1″:””,”interstitial-2″:””,”interstitial-3″:””,”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””}},”headlines”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””,”sidebar-3″:””},”news”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar_middle”:””,”sidebar_bottom”:””}},”infinite”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”interstitial”:””,”interstitial-2″:””,”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””}},”video”:{“main”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””},”category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar_top”:””,”sidebar_middle”:””,”sidebar_bottom”:””}},”image”:{“main”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar_top”:””,”sidebar_middle”:””,”sidebar_bottom”:””}},”gallery”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””}},”image_gallery_infinite”:{“header”:{“script”:”rnrn”,”ad”:””},”interstitial”:””,”interstitial-2″:””,”left-sidebar”:””,”right-sidebar”:””},”earthpedia-main”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””,”sidebar-3″:””,”sidebar-4″:””},”earthpedia-articles”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””,”sidebar-3″:””},”earthpedia-category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””},”earthpedia-article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””},”plant”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””}},”animal”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””}},”endangered-species”:{“category”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com billboard header ad –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”7255713531″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar”:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com 300×250 –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”2025429976″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”sidebar-2″:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com 300×250 –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”2025429976″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ‘0088bf958a55ab96eee2ad87d7a2a403af’;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernrnu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var OB_ADV_ID = ’00f252b1a014b0a30dac49c6831a52a653′;rn if (_window.obApi) {rn var toArray = function(object) {rn return Object.prototype.toString.call(object) === ‘[object Array]’ ? object : [object];rn };rn _window.obApi.marketerId = toArray(_window.obApi.marketerId).concat(toArray(OB_ADV_ID));rn return;rn }rn var api = _window.obApi = function() {rn api.dispatch ? api.dispatch.apply(api, arguments) : api.queue.push(arguments);rn };rn api.version = ‘1.1’;rn api.loaded = true;rn api.marketerId = OB_ADV_ID;rn api.queue = [];rn var tag = _document.createElement(‘script’);rn tag.async = true;rn tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com billboard header ad –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”7255713531″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”},”sidebar-top”:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com 300×250 –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”2025429976″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”sidebar-middle”:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com 300×250 –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”2025429976″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”sidebar-bottom”:”u003cscript async src=”https://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js?client=ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn crossorigin=”anonymous”u003eu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– Earth.com 300×250 –u003ernu003cins class=”adsbygoogle”rn style=”display:block”rn data-ad-client=”ca-pub-7821447371451764″rn data-ad-slot=”2025429976″rn data-ad-format=”auto”rn data-full-width-responsive=”true”u003eu003c/insu003ernu003cscriptu003ern rnu003c/scriptu003e”}},”playground”:{“article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003cscriptu003ernwindow.pg = window.pg || {};rnpg.disabledUnits = pg.disabledUnits || [];rnpg.disabledUnits.push(‘/48037644/Earth_Anchor’);rnpg.disabledUnits.push(‘/48037644/Earth_Anchor_Mobile’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003cscript src=”//m2d.m2.ai/pg.earth.js” asyncu003e u003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar_middle”:””,”sidebar_bottom”:””}}},”prebid”:{“wrapper”:”earth-default”,”layout”:{“name”:”news/control”,”postType”:”news”,”version”:”control”},”ads”:{“DESKTOP_BILLBOARD”:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-billboard”,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_INCONTENT_1″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1″,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_INCONTENT_2″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2″,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_INCONTENT_3″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3″,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_INCONTENT_4″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-4″,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_INCONTENT_5″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-5″,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_INCONTENT_6″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-6″,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_SIDEBAR_1″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-sidebar-1″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”DESKTOP_SIDEBAR_2″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-sidebar-2″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”DESKTOP_SIDEBAR_3″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-sidebar-3″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”DESKTOP_SIDEBAR_4″:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-sidebar-4″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”DESKTOP_TOPLEADERBOARD”:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-topleaderboard”,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”DESKTOP_ANCHOR”:{“id”:”pb-slot-desktop-anchor”,”style”:{“minWidth”:728,”minHeight”:90}},”MOBILE_BILLBOARD”:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-billboard”,”style”:{“minWidth”:320,”minHeight”:50}},”MOBILE_INCONTENT_1″:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_INCONTENT_2″:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_INCONTENT_3″:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_INCONTENT_4″:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-4″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_INCONTENT_5″:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-5″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_INCONTENT_6″:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-6″,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_TOPLEADERBOARD”:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-topleaderboard”,”style”:{“minWidth”:300,”minHeight”:250}},”MOBILE_ANCHOR”:{“id”:”pb-slot-mobile-anchor”,”style”:{“minWidth”:320,”minHeight”:50}}}},”seo”:{“html”:”u003c!– This site is optimized with the Yoast SEO Premium plugin v17.0 (Yoast SEO v17.0) – https://yoast.com/wordpress/plugins/seo/ –u003enu003ctitleu003eRobot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk u0026bull; Earth.comu003c/titleu003enu003cmeta name=”description” content=”At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts” /u003enu003cmeta name=”robots” content=”index, follow, max-snippet:-1, max-image-preview:large, max-video-preview:-1″ /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:locale” content=”en_US” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:type” content=”article” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:title” content=”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:description” content=”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk u0026bull; Earth.com” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:url” content=”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:site_name” content=”Earth.com” /u003enu003cmeta property=”article:publisher” content=”https://www.facebook.com/earth.com/” /u003enu003cmeta property=”article:modified_time” content=”2022-07-18T15:33:23+00:00″ /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:image” content=”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png” /u003entu003cmeta property=”og:image:width” content=”700″ /u003entu003cmeta property=”og:image:height” content=”466″ /u003enu003cmeta name=”twitter:card” content=”summary” /u003enu003cmeta name=”twitter:site” content=”@earthdotcom” /u003enu003cmeta name=”twitter:label1″ content=”Est. reading time” /u003entu003cmeta name=”twitter:data1″ content=”3 minutes” /u003enu003cscript type=”application/ld+json” class=”yoast-schema-graph”u003e{“@context”:”https://schema.org”,”@graph”:[{“@type”:”WebSite”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#website”,”url”:”https://www.earth.com/”,”name”:”Earth.com”,”description”:”Nature * Science * Life”,”potentialAction”:[{“@type”:”SearchAction”,”target”:{“@type”:”EntryPoint”,”urlTemplate”:”https://www.earth.com/?s={search_term_string}”},”query-input”:”required name=search_term_string”}],”inLanguage”:”en-US”},{“@type”:”ImageObject”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#primaryimage”,”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”url”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png”,”contentUrl”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png”,”width”:700,”height”:466,”caption”:”At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts”},{“@type”:”WebPage”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#webpage”,”url”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/”,”name”:”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk u0026bull; Earth.com”,”isPartOf”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#website”},”primaryImageOfPage”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#primaryimage”},”datePublished”:”2022-07-18T15:00:00+00:00″,”dateModified”:”2022-07-18T15:33:23+00:00″,”description”:”At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts”,”breadcrumb”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#breadcrumb”},”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”potentialAction”:[{“@type”:”ReadAction”,”target”:[“https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/”]}]},{“@type”:”BreadcrumbList”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#breadcrumb”,”itemListElement”:[{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:1,”name”:”Home”,”item”:”https://www.earth.com/”},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:2,”name”:”News”,”item”:”https://www.earth.com/news/”},{“@type”:”ListItem”,”position”:3,”name”:”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk”}]},{“@type”:[“Article”,”NewsArticle”],”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#article”,”isPartOf”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#webpage”},”author”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#/schema/person/58fcc0c23ef9ad66357f2b570e7c01a9″},”headline”:”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk”,”datePublished”:”2022-07-18T15:00:00+00:00″,”dateModified”:”2022-07-18T15:33:23+00:00″,”mainEntityOfPage”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#webpage”},”wordCount”:607,”image”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/#primaryimage”},”thumbnailUrl”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png”,”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”copyrightYear”:”2022″,”copyrightHolder”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#organization”}},{“@type”:”Person”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#/schema/person/58fcc0c23ef9ad66357f2b570e7c01a9″,”name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”image”:{“@type”:”ImageObject”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#personlogo”,”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”url”:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=96u0026d=mmu0026r=g”,”contentUrl”:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=96u0026d=mmu0026r=g”,”caption”:”Andrei Ionescu”},”sameAs”:[“http://earth.com”],”url”:”https://www.earth.com/author/aionescu/”}]}u003c/scriptu003enu003c!– / Yoast SEO Premium plugin. –u003e”},”__N_SSP”:true,”pageProps”:{“article”:{“post”:{“ID”:1910170,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”nu003cpu003eAlthough animals are born with muscle coordination networks located in their spinal cord, learning the precise coordination of leg muscles and tendons takes some time. At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts. The more advanced and precise muscle control that characterizes adult animals must be practiced, until the nervous system is well-adapted to the leg muscles and tendons.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eIn order to better understand how animals learn to walk, a research team from the u003ca href=”https://is.mpg.de/en”u003eMax Planck Institute for Intelligent Systemsu003c/au003e (MPI-IS) in Stuttgartu0026nbsp;has built a four-legged, dog-sized u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-flying-fish/”u003erobotu003c/au003e that gradually learned to walk with the help of a Bayesian optimization algorithm which continuously compared sent and expected sensor information, ran reflex loops, and adapted the robot’s motor control patterns.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“As engineers and roboticists, we sought the answer by building a robot that features reflexes just like an animal and learns from mistakes,” said study lead author Felix Ruppert, a former doctoral student at MPI-IS. “If an animal stumbles, is that a mistake? Not if it happens once. But if it stumbles frequently, it gives us a measure of how well the robot walks.”u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1-para-inj-0″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1-para-inj-0’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1-para-inj-0’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1-para-inj-0″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1-para-inj-0’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1-para-inj-0’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003eThe learning algorithm that Dr. Ruppert and his team constructed simulated the control parameters of a Central Pattern Generator (CPG), as well as the reflexes that characterize living beings. In animals, these CPGs are networks of neurons in the spinal cord which produce periodic muscle contractions without input from the brain and aid the generation of rhythmic tasks such as walking, digestion, or blinking. u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eAs long as an animal walks over flat surfaces, the CPGs are generally sufficient to control the movement signals from the spinal cord. However, if it stumbles, reflexes kick in and adjust the movement patterns to keep the animal from falling. While in newborn animals, CPGs are not yet adjusted well enough and the animals frequently stumble around, they rapidly learn how their CPGs and reflexes control leg muscles and tendons. By imitating these biological mechanisms, the robot dog that the scientists constructed surpassed animals in how quickly it learned to walk – in about one hour.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“Our robot is practically ‘born’ knowing nothing about its leg anatomy or how they work,” Dr. Ruppert explained. “The CPG resembles a built-in automatic walking intelligence that nature provides and that we have transferred to the robot. The computer produces signals that control the legs’ motors, and the robot initially walks and stumbles.u0026#8221;u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2-para-inj-1″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2-para-inj-1’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2-para-inj-1’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2-para-inj-1″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2-para-inj-1’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2-para-inj-1’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003eu0026#8220;Data flows back from the sensors to the virtual spinal cord where sensor and CPG data are compared. If the sensor data does not match the expected data, the learning algorithm changes the walking behavior until the robot walks well, and without stumbling. Changing the CPG output while keeping reflexes active and monitoring the robot stumbling is a core part of the learning process.”u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“We can’t easily research the spinal cord of a living animal. But we can model one in the robot,” added study co-author Alexander Badri-Spröwitz, an expert in Biomechanics at MPI-IS. u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“We know that these CPGs exist in many animals. We know that reflexes are embedded; but how can we combine both so that animals learn movements with reflexes and CPGs? This is fundamental research at the intersection between robotics and biology. The robotic model gives us answers to questions that biology alone can’t answer,” he concluded.u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3-para-inj-2″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3-para-inj-2’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3-para-inj-2’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3-para-inj-2″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3-para-inj-2’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3-para-inj-2’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42256-022-00505-4″u003eu003cemu003eNature Machine Intelligenceu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eu003cemu003eImage Credit: Felix Ruppert, Dynamic Locomotion Group at MPI-ISu003c/emu003eu003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eu0026#8212;u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-4-para-inj-3″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-4″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-4-para-inj-3’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-4’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-4-para-inj-3’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-4-para-inj-3″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-4″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-4-para-inj-3’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-4’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-4-para-inj-3’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003en”,”post_title”:”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk”,”post_excerpt”:”At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 09:33:23″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:33:23″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910170″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”thumbnail”:”u003cimg src=”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png” class=”img-fluid h-100 wp-post-image” alt=”At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts” loading=”lazy” srcset=”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png 700w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-300×200.png 300w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-450×300.png 450w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-270×180.png 270w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-360×240.png 360w” sizes=”(max-width: 700px) 100vw, 700px” /u003e”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″},”sidebar”:[{“ID”:1910174,”post_author”:”65″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 11:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 17:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe topic of beneficial gut bacteria has been ubiquitous among health advocates for some time now. However, gut bacteria are also linked to autoimmune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease.u0026nbsp;The “leaky gut” hypothesis is often used to explain harmful bacteria. This theory states that dangerous bacteria migrate from the gut and cause inflammation in the body.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”But one mystery has been how potentially pathogenic bacteria can exist in healthy people for decades with no apparent health consequences,” said Noah Palm, a professor of Immunobiology at u003ca href=”https://www.yale.edu/”u003eYale Universityu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn an attempt to understand the leaky gut phenomenon, Yale researchers analyzed the behavior and genetics of potentially pathogenic microbes in mice and discovered that the bacteria split into two unique populations.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOne population of pathogenic bacteria was similar to the original bacteria, but another strain mutated in a way that allowed them to thrive in the mucosal linings of the intestine and migrate to the lymph nodes and liver after exiting the gut. These are the bacteria that cause inflammation and disease.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhat’s insidious about these bacteria is that, unlike traditional pathogens, they can temporarily evade the immune system by hiding in organs. Eventually, the microbes can trigger autoimmune diseases. This finding helps to explain why people with these potentially pathogenic bacteria can appear healthy but are more likely to become sick as they age.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers say environmental factors play a role. For example, those who consume a healthy diet will develop a diverse gut biota. With this diversity, there is more competition between bacteria and less probability for the potentially harmful bacteria to develop and exit the gut. However, if there is a lack of bacterial diversity in the gut, the gut environment is ripe for developing dangerous gut bacteria variants.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers, including study lead author Yi Yang, expect that the knowledge gained from this study will help develop new treatments for several diseases linked to “leaky gut.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://www.nature.com/”u003eu003cemu003eNatureu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:nire518@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eErin Moody u003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Leaky gut mystery may be explained by microbe evolution”,”post_excerpt”:”In an attempt to understand the leaky gut phenomenon, Yale researchers analyzed the behavior and genetics of potentially pathogenic microbes in mice”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”leaky-gut-mystery-may-be-explained-by-microbe-evolution”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 11:11:37″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 17:11:37″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910174″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/leaky-gut-mystery-may-be-explained-by-microbe-evolution/”,”author_name”:”Erin Moody”,”author_url”:”https://www.Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/941689ae37ba9262b941bdee76852c4c?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/941689ae37ba9262b941bdee76852c4c?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18111023/Leaky-gut-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1707,”file”:”2022/07/Leaky-gut-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-1024×683.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:683,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-768×512.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:512,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-1536×1024.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1024,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-2048×1365.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1365,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Leaky-gut-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Leaky-gut.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”The topic of beneficial gut bacteria has been ubiquitous among…”},{“ID”:1910172,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 10:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 16:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA new study published in the journal u003ca href=”https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-bul0000363.pdf”u003eu003cemu003ePsychological Bulletinu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e has found that, despite common concerns that the social fabric is fraying, cooperation among strangers has in fact gradually increased in the United States since the 1950s. These findings challenge the widespread assumption that civic cooperation among strangers has declined in the U.S. over time.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We were surprised by our findings that Americans became more cooperative over the last six decades because many people believe U.S. society is becoming less socially connected, less trusting, and less committed to the common good,” said study co-author Yu Kou, a professor of Social Psychology at the u003ca href=”https://english.bnu.edu.cn/”u003eBeijing Normal Universityu003c/au003e. “Greater cooperation within and between societies may help us tackle global challenges, such as responses to pandemics, climate change, and immigrant crises.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe scientists analyzed 511 studies conducted in the United States between 1956 and 2017 with a total of over 63,000 participants, which investigated how cooperation among strangers evolved over time. The analysis revealed a small, gradual increase in cooperation during this 61-year period, which was associated with significant shifts in U.S. u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/species-suffer-a-second-extinction-when-society-forgets-about-them/”u003esocietyu003c/au003e, including increases in urbanization, societal wealth, income inequality, and the number of people living alone. However, it is not yet clear whether a causal relationship between these factors and the increase in cooperation actually exists.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to study co-author Paul Van Lange, a professor of Social Psychology at the u003ca href=”https://vu.nl/nl”u003eFree University of Amsterdamu003c/au003e, increased cooperation may be connected to market competitiveness and economic growth. As more people live in the cities and on their own, they may be forced to cooperate with strangers.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“It’s possible that people gradually learn to broaden their cooperation with friends and acquaintances to strangers, which is called for in more urban, anonymous societies,” Professor Van Lange said. “U.S. society may have become more individualistic, but people have not.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eHowever, since the studies that were analyzed were mostly conducted in laboratory settings primarily with college students as participants, they may not be fully representative of real-life situations or on the U.S. society as a whole. Further research is needed to clarify the extent to which these prior studies reflect real societal processes, and to include other important factors, such as how levels of interpersonal trust have changed over the past decades.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Cooperation among strangers has increased in the U.S.”,”post_excerpt”:”These findings challenge the widespread assumption that civic cooperation among strangers has declined in the U.S. over time.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”cooperation-among-strangers-has-increased-in-the-u-s”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 10:38:29″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 16:38:29″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910172″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/cooperation-among-strangers-has-increased-in-the-u-s/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18103806/Cooperation2-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1707,”file”:”2022/07/Cooperation2-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-1024×683.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:683,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-768×512.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:512,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Cooperation2-1536×1024.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1024,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Cooperation2-2048×1365.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1365,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Cooperation2-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Cooperation2.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”A new study published in the journal Psychological Bulletin has…”},{“ID”:1910170,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAlthough animals are born with muscle coordination networks located in their spinal cord, learning the precise coordination of leg muscles and tendons takes some time. At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts. The more advanced and precise muscle control that characterizes adult animals must be practiced, until the nervous system is well-adapted to the leg muscles and tendons.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn order to better understand how animals learn to walk, a research team from the u003ca href=”https://is.mpg.de/en”u003eMax Planck Institute for Intelligent Systemsu003c/au003e (MPI-IS) in Stuttgartu0026nbsp;has built a four-legged, dog-sized u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-flying-fish/”u003erobotu003c/au003e that gradually learned to walk with the help of a Bayesian optimization algorithm which continuously compared sent and expected sensor information, ran reflex loops, and adapted the robot’s motor control patterns.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“As engineers and roboticists, we sought the answer by building a robot that features reflexes just like an animal and learns from mistakes,” said study lead author Felix Ruppert, a former doctoral student at MPI-IS. “If an animal stumbles, is that a mistake? Not if it happens once. But if it stumbles frequently, it gives us a measure of how well the robot walks.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe learning algorithm that Dr. Ruppert and his team constructed simulated the control parameters of a Central Pattern Generator (CPG), as well as the reflexes that characterize living beings. In animals, these CPGs are networks of neurons in the spinal cord which produce periodic muscle contractions without input from the brain and aid the generation of rhythmic tasks such as walking, digestion, or blinking. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAs long as an animal walks over flat surfaces, the CPGs are generally sufficient to control the movement signals from the spinal cord. However, if it stumbles, reflexes kick in and adjust the movement patterns to keep the animal from falling. While in newborn animals, CPGs are not yet adjusted well enough and the animals frequently stumble around, they rapidly learn how their CPGs and reflexes control leg muscles and tendons. By imitating these biological mechanisms, the robot dog that the scientists constructed surpassed animals in how quickly it learned to walk – in about one hour.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Our robot is practically ‘born’ knowing nothing about its leg anatomy or how they work,” Dr. Ruppert explained. “The CPG resembles a built-in automatic walking intelligence that nature provides and that we have transferred to the robot. The computer produces signals that control the legs’ motors, and the robot initially walks and stumbles.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Data flows back from the sensors to the virtual spinal cord where sensor and CPG data are compared. If the sensor data does not match the expected data, the learning algorithm changes the walking behavior until the robot walks well, and without stumbling. Changing the CPG output while keeping reflexes active and monitoring the robot stumbling is a core part of the learning process.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We can’t easily research the spinal cord of a living animal. But we can model one in the robot,” added study co-author Alexander Badri-Spröwitz, an expert in Biomechanics at MPI-IS. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We know that these CPGs exist in many animals. We know that reflexes are embedded; but how can we combine both so that animals learn movements with reflexes and CPGs? This is fundamental research at the intersection between robotics and biology. The robotic model gives us answers to questions that biology alone can’t answer,” he concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42256-022-00505-4″u003eu003cemu003eNature Machine Intelligenceu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eImage Credit: Felix Ruppert, Dynamic Locomotion Group at MPI-ISu003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Robot dog sheds new light on how animals learn to walk”,”post_excerpt”:”At the beginning, baby animals rely heavily on hard-wired spinal cord reflexes that help them avoid falling during their first walking attempts”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 09:33:23″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:33:23″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910170″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18093255/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-270×180.png”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:700,”height”:466,”file”:”2022/07/Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg.png”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-300×200.png”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-150×150.png”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-640×466.png”,”width”:640,”height”:466,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-454×282.png”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-450×300.png”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-350×210.png”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-425×375.png”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-125×88.png”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-270×180.png”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-32×32.png”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-360×240.png”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-700×410.png”,”width”:700,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-230×280.png”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Morti-the-robot1.jpg-230×260.png”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/png”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”0″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”Although animals are born with muscle coordination networks located in…”},{“ID”:1910167,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn their evolutionary arms race between rattlesnakes and their prey, rodents, birds, and other reptiles often develop resistance to snakes’ u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/scientists-find-a-new-way-to-study-venom-production/”u003evenomu003c/au003e. However, a new study led by the u003ca href=”https://www.colorado.edu/”u003eUniversity of Colorado Boulderu003c/au003e (CU Boulder) and the u003ca href=”https://www.uta.edu/”u003eUniversity of Texas at Arlingtonu003c/au003e (UT Arlington) has found that rattlesnakes maintain a broad and diverse genetic toolkit that encodes snake venom, allowing them to rapidly adapt as their local prey and conditions change.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The existence of these resistance mechanisms in prey led us to wonder: If there’s selection pressure imposed back on the snakes, then it might make sense evolutionarily to have a more expanded venom arsenal,”u0026nbsp;said study lead author Drew Schield, a postdoctoral researcher in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at CU Boulder. “We found these rattlesnakes had a more diverse venom repertoire, more genetic tools in the toolkit, than their venom composition alone might suggest.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFor decades, scientists thought that the co-evolution between rattlesnakes and their prey would be driven by a process called “directional selection,” in which snake venom would become highly specialized, evolving to effectively kill specific prey. However, by studying samples from 68 rattlesnakes belonging to two different species in the western United States, Dr. Schield and his colleagues have found that venom evolution is in fact driven by “balancing selection,” an evolutionary process where multiple versions of a gene are maintained instead of eliminated.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Our findings help explain decades of seemingly contradictory theory and evidence for what drives the extreme variation observed in snake venoms. It turns out that the arms-race between snakes and prey ends up favoring the constant re-shuffling of venom variants that are favored, leading to the retention of lots of venom variants over time, some of which are ancient,” said study co-author Todd Castoe, a professor of Biology at UT Arlington.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThus, while directional selection may have driven the origins of venom, in more recent times, there may have been an equilibrium shift towards balancing selection favoring a more diverse venom repertoire. “These evolutionary mechanisms ramp up the complexity that you’re contending with when you develop antivenoms, as venom composition within the same species but in different geographic regions might be totally different,” Dr. Schield concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-022-01829-5″u003eu003cemu003eNature Ecology u0026amp; Evolutionu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Rattlesnakes diversify their venom for evolving prey”,”post_excerpt”:”In their evolutionary arms race between rattlesnakes and their prey, rodents, birds, and other reptiles often develop resistance to snakes’ venom”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”rattlesnakes-diversify-their-venom-for-evolving-prey”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 09:28:35″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:28:35″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910167″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/rattlesnakes-diversify-their-venom-for-evolving-prey/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18092744/Rattlesnakes-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1798,”file”:”2022/07/Rattlesnakes-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-300×211.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:211,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-1024×719.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:719,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-768×539.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:539,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-1536×1079.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1079,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-2048×1438.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1438,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Rattlesnakes-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Rattlesnakes.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”In their evolutionary arms race between rattlesnakes and their prey,…”},{“ID”:1910161,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAs the populations of living species decline and disappear from habitats around the world, there is a decrease in genetic variety and living biodiversity within species, within ecosystems and within geographical regions. This can have significant consequences for humans, who are dependent on the services provided by intact ecosystems. And a survey completed by the world’s biodiversity experts finds that things may be worse than we previously thought.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Biodiversity loss is one of our biggest environmental challenges in the world, probably more important than climate change. The problem of climate change can be corrected by stopping the emission of more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. If you lose a species, it’s gone forever,” said Professor Johannes Knops, a researcher atu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.xjtlu.edu.cn/en/”u003eXi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool Universityu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eProfessor Knops is one of more than 60 experts who have co-authored the major global study of biodiversity loss, recently published in the u003ca href=”https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2536″u003ejournalu0026nbsp;u003cemu003eFrontiers in Ecology and the Environmentu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e. The researchers surveys from thousands of international scientists in the biodiversity field to identify knowledge gaps and assess the state of the world’s biodiversity from different geographical and demographic perspectives. The study aimed to understand biodiversity loss globally and the most influential factors driving this phenomenon.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe team included scientists from many different backgrounds, including those from groups that are often underrepresented in biodiversity science, such as women and those from the Global South. Despite these different backgrounds, there was an overwhelming consensus among participants that global biodiversity loss will likely limit the functioning of ecosystems and therefore affect the ways in which ecosystems support and contribute to people.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe findings suggest that more species may be threatened than previously thought. The experts estimate that since 1500, 30 percent of all species have been threatened with extinction or driven extinct. If current trends continue, this could increase to 37 percent by 2100. However, the experts also stress that with swift and extensive conservation efforts, this can be lowered to 25 percent.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe most influential factors driving biodiversity loss, according to the expert participants, are climate change, pollution, and land- and sea-use change and exploitation.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Biodiversity loss occurs in many different places, and there are gaps in our common understanding of it. This collaboration can help us reach a consensus on where to make efforts to improve biodiversity,” said Professor Knops.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe inclusion of representatives from diverse backgrounds revealed differences in opinions about the extent of biodiversity loss and the best ways to conserve species future. This was particularly noticeable when discussing strategies for increasing biodiversity using the current approach of land sharing and land sparing.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The land sharing strategy focuses on thinking about how agriculture and cities can co-exist with biodiversity, while the land sparing strategy expands the size of protected areas to increase biodiversity while maintaining intensive agricultural practices elsewhere,” explained Professor Knops.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Historically, there has been a greater emphasis on land sparing and making nature reserves, which was put forth predominantly by North American and European white males. Women and people in China, South America and Africa, place more emphasis on land sharing. These findings suggest that maybe there’s disproportionate focus on land sparing, and there should be more consideration of land sharing.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe experts encourage other researchers to use the study to understand the global perspectives on biodiversity loss and to include diverse viewpoints in future research.u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Every species has its own food chain and needs to interact with other species in ecosystems, each of which is important to the ecosystem. That is why we should be concerned about biodiversity loss,” said Professor Knops.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:bosman@truewan.co.za”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Global biodiversity crisis is actually worse than we thought”,”post_excerpt”:”And a survey completed by the world’s biodiversity experts finds that things may be worse than we previously thought.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”global-biodiversity-crisis-is-actually-worse-than-we-thought”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 09:15:43″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 15:15:43″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910161″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/global-biodiversity-crisis-is-actually-worse-than-we-thought/”,”author_name”:”Alison Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/a33f7e6b2104c5708420301534070584?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/a33f7e6b2104c5708420301534070584?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18091506/Biodiversity-scaled.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1984,”file”:”2022/07/Biodiversity-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Biodiversity-300×233.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:233,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Biodiversity-1024×794.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:794,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Biodiversity-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Biodiversity-768×595.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:595,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Biodiversity-1536×1190.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1190,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Biodiversity.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”As the populations of living species decline and disappear from…”},{“ID”:1910158,”post_author”:”63″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 07:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 13:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA new study led by researchers at the u003ca href=”https://www.ku.dk/english/”u003eUniversity of Copenhagenu003c/au003e discovered a unique fly fungus that could be straight from a horror movie. The fungus survives by “bewitching” male flies into mating with dead female flies. The longer a u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/male-wolf-spiders-perform-elaborate-dances-to-woo-females/”u003efemaleu003c/au003e fly carcass has rotted, the greater the male’s lust.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe fungus can eject its infected spores at up to 10 meters a second, which is among the fastest of nature’s movements.After infecting a female fly, the fungus spreads until its host has slowly been consumed alive from within.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAfter six days, the fungus takes over the behavior of the female fly and forces it to the highest point, where the fly then dies. When the fungus has killed the zombie female, it releases chemical signals known as sesquiterpenes.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”The chemical signals act as pheromones that bewitch male flies and cause an incredible urge for them to mate with lifeless female carcasses,” explained study co-author Henrik H. De Fine Licht.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAs male flies copulate with dead females, they are the next to become infected and left to suffer the same gruesome fate. In this way, the fungus spreads to new victims to ensure its own survival.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Our observations suggest that this is a very deliberate strategy for the fungus. It is a true master of manipulation – and this is incredibly fascinating,” said De Fine Licht.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBy tracking fly behavior, the researchers demonstrated that dead female flies become more attractive as time passes. Overall, 73 percent of the male flies in the study mated with female fly carcasses that died from the fungal infection. Only 15 percent of the males mated with female corpses that had been dead for 3 to 8 hours.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”We see that the longer a female fly has been dead, the more alluring it becomes to males. This is because the number of fungal spores increases with time, which enhances the seductive fragrances,” explained De Fine Licht.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study provides gory, yet fascinating insight into nature’s mechanisms. It also provides new knowledge that may lead to effective fly repellents in the future.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Flies are quite unhygienic and can sicken humans and animals by spreading coli bacteria and any diseases that they are carrying. So, there is an incentive to limit housefly populations, in areas where food is being produced for example,” said De Fine Licht.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”This is where the u003cemu003eEntomophthora muscaeu003c/emu003e fungus may prove useful. It might be possible for us to use these same fungal fragrances as a biological pest control that attracts healthy males to a fly trap instead of a corpse.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe research is published in the u003ca href=”https://www.nature.com/ismej/”u003eu003cemu003eThe ISME Journalu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:katherinebucko@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eKatherine Buckou003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Fly fungus lures males to mate with female corpses”,”post_excerpt”:”A new study led by researchers at the University of Copenhagen discovered a unique fly fungus that could be straight from a horror movie”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”fly-fungus-lures-males-to-mate-with-female-corpses”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 07:42:11″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 13:42:11″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910158″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/fly-fungus-lures-males-to-mate-with-female-corpses/”,”author_name”:”Katherine Bucko”,”author_url”:”http://Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18074130/Fly-fungus-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:2308,”file”:”2022/07/Fly-fungus-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-300×270.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:270,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-1024×923.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:923,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-768×692.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:692,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-1536×1385.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1385,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-2048×1847.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1847,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Fly-fungus-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Fly-fungus.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”A new study led by researchers at the University of…”},{“ID”:1910155,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-18 06:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 12:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eHumans are a highly social species, relying on constantly changing cooperation dynamics and other types of interpersonal relations to survive and thrive. u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/language-impact-perception-earth/”u003eLanguageu003c/au003e has a major role in these relations, fundamentally structuring interpersonal behaviors. Although experience proves that words can hurt, not much is known about how people process insults. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eNow, a research team led by u003ca href=”https://www.uu.nl/en”u003eUtrecht Universityu003c/au003e in the Netherlands has found that hearing insults is highly similar to receiving a “mini slap in the face,” regardless of the exact context in which the insult is uttered.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The exact way in which words can deliver their offensive, emotionally negative payload at the moment these words are being read or heard is not yet well-understood,” said study corresponding author Marijn Struiksma, a postdoctoral fellow in Linguistics at Utrecht University. “Understanding what an insulting expression does to people as it unfolds, and why, is of considerable importance to psycholinguists interested in how language moves people, but also to others who wish to understand the details of social behavior.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eDr. Struiksma and her colleagues used electroencephalography (EEG) and skin conductance recordings to compare the short-term impact of repeated verbal insults to that of repeated positive or neutral evaluations on a cohort of 79 female participants. Then they read a series of repeated statements that realized three different types of speech acts: insults (e.g., “Linda is horrible”), compliments (“Linda is impressive”), or neutral, factually true descriptive statements (“Linda is Dutch”). In order to assess whether the effects of these statements depended on who the statement was about, half of the statements used the participants’ own names, and the other half different names.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We assume that verbal insults trigger a cascade of rapidly consecutive or overlapping processing effects, and that different parts of that cascade might be differently affected by repetition, with some of them rapidly wearing off, and others remaining strongly responsive for a long time,” said Dr. Struiksma.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe results revealed that even under unnatural conditions – a laboratory setting, no direct interaction with other humans, statements coming from fictitious people – verbal insults can still have a powerful effect, regardless of who the insult was about, and continue to do so even after being repeated several times. The EEG showed an early insult effect in P2 amplitude – a waveform component of the event-related potential (ERP) that can be measured at the human scalp – which was very strong even after repetition.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Our study shows that in a psycholinguistic laboratory experiment without real interaction between speakers, insults deliver lexical ‘mini slaps in the face’, such that the strongly negative evaluative words involved that a participant reads, automatically grab attention during lexical retrieval, regardless of how often that retrieval occurs,” Dr. Struiksma explained.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhile insults appeared to immediately capture our brain’s attention, compliments elicited a less powerful P2 effect, showing a negativity bias in the amount of attention allocated to negative versus positive social interactions. Further research is needed to clarify whether these findings hold in real-life settings too.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2022.910023″u003eu003cemu003eFrontiers in Communicationu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Verbal insults are “mini slaps in the face””,”post_excerpt”:”Although experience proves that words can hurt, not much is known about how people process insults. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”verbal-insults-are-mini-slaps-in-the-face”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-18 06:15:20″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 12:15:20″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910155″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-18-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/verbal-insults-are-mini-slaps-in-the-face/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/18061445/Insult-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:2091,”file”:”2022/07/Insult-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Insult-300×245.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:245,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Insult-1024×836.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:836,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Insult-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Insult-768×627.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:627,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Insult-1536×1255.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1255,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Insult-2048×1673.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1673,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Insult-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Insult-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Insult-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Insult-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Insult-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Insult-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Insult-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Insult-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Insult-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Insult-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Insult-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Insult-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Insult-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Insult-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Insult.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Humans are a highly social species, relying on constantly changing…”},{“ID”:1910153,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-17 18:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-18 00:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to a new study led by the u003ca href=”http://www.reading.ac.uk/”u003eUniversity of Readingu003c/au003e, supporting and enhancing pollinators such as u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/pesticides-make-it-harder-for-male-bees-to-attract-mates/”u003ebeesu003c/au003e could help stabilize the production of important crops like oilseeds and fruits, reducing the uncertainties that often cause food prices to rise. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe analysis revealed that there was 32 percent less variation in the yields of plants visited by bees and other pollinators than in those grown in the absence of pollinators. Thus, pollinators could help mitigate supply issues and market shocks that cause global price spikes, by holding food supplies steady.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Our findings suggest that preserving pollinators provides a double benefit, reducing fluctuations in food supplies as well as boosting supplies in the first place,” said study lead author Jake Bishop, a crop scientist at the University of Reading. “Stable and predictable production of nutritious food is a necessity for farmers and for global food security. We are seeing right now that instability or shocks across the food system can lead to dramatic increases in food price.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The research has revealed another reason why pollinators are so important to our planet, and to so many families who are struggling to feed themselves with sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. Pollinators are particularly important in the production of fruit and vegetable crops. Around half of the experiments we analyzed were testing the effect of real pollinator populations in real crop fields so our results illustrate the benefits that pollinators are currently providing.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eDr. Bishop and his colleagues assessed the results of over 200 previous experiments that compared the yield of three crop plants – faba beans, oilseed rape, and apples – with and without insect pollination, and concluded that insect pollination consistently made yields more similar between flowers on a plant, between individual plants, between areas within fields, and between fields.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis stabilizing effect of pollination is likely due to a ceiling effect, whereby yield increases resulting from insect pollination hits an upper limit due to limitations of other resources which support crop growth, such as soil nutrients or access to water. This phenomenon creates a raised and more stable baseline against which there is less fluctuation in yield.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis study – published in the journal u003ca href=”http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.14069″u003eu003cemu003eEcology Lettersu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e – marks the start of Bees’ Needs Week (18-24 July), a UK government-led initiative championing pollinators and their multiple benefits by encouraging people to take u003ca href=”https://www.bumblebeeconservation.org/bees-needs/five-simple-actions/”u003efive simple actionsu003c/au003e to support pollinators.u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eImage Credit: Louise Truslove/University of Readingu003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Pollinators stabilize the production of food crops”,”post_excerpt”:”supporting and enhancing pollinators such as bees could help stabilize the production of important crops like oilseeds and fruits”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”pollinators-stabilize-the-production-of-food-crops”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-17 18:10:34″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-18 00:10:34″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910153″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-17-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/pollinators-stabilize-the-production-of-food-crops/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/17181006/Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-270×180.png”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:700,”height”:394,”file”:”2022/07/Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg.png”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-300×169.png”,”width”:300,”height”:169,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-150×150.png”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-640×394.png”,”width”:640,”height”:394,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-454×282.png”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-450×300.png”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-350×210.png”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-425×375.png”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-125×88.png”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-270×180.png”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-32×32.png”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-360×240.png”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-230×280.png”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Low-Res_Bee-Louise-Truslove-3.jpg-230×260.png”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/png”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”0″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”According to a new study led by the University of…”},{“ID”:1910151,”post_author”:”63″,”post_date”:”2022-07-17 08:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-17 14:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe state of California relies on its forests to help reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. But this service may be in jeopardy as new research from UC Irvine reports that u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/heat-makes-pine-trees-more-susceptible-to-disease/”u003etreesu003c/au003e in California are dying from wildfires and other pressures – and fewer new trees are filling the void.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The forests are not keeping up with these large fires,” said study co-author James Randerson. Across CaliforniA, tree cover area has declined by 6.7 percent since 1985 – big changes in less than four decades.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis the first time that researchers have been able to measure tree population declines in California, and attribute the changes to such pressures as wildfires, drought stress and logging.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFor the study, satellite data was used to study vegetation changes between 1985 and 2021. The results were alarming – one of the starkest declines in tree cover was in Southern California, where 14 percent of the tree population in local mountain ranges vanished, and possibly for good.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The ability of forests to recover from fire appears to be dwindling in the south,” said Jonathan Wang, who led the study published in u003ca href=”https://doi.org/10.1029/2021AV000654″u003eu003cemu003eAGU Advancesu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e. “At the same time, the state’s coverage of shrubs and grasses is rising, which could foreshadow more permanent ecosystem shifts.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe rate and scale of decline varies across the state. For example, tree cover in the Sierra Nevada was stable until 2010. In 2012 to 2015, a severe drought killed 8.8 percent of the Sierra forest. This mortality event was followed by some of the worst wildfires in the state’s history.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFortunately in the north, there is recovery after fire thanks to higher rainfall levels and cooler temperatures. But even there, extreme fire seasons in 2018, 2020 and 2021 have taken a visible toll.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eStudy co-author Michael Goulden is a UCI professor of Earth System Science and the director of the Center for Ecosystem Climate Solutions. As a next step in the research, Professor Goulden is using the data to understand how changes in forest cover are affecting water resources, carbon storage and fire behavior across the state. This threat however, is not going to disappear, and will be exacerbated by a new age of intense fires and vulnerable forests.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:katherinebucko@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eKatherine Buckou003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”California’s forests are losing their ability to recover”,”post_excerpt”:”The state of California relies on its forests to help reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”californias-forests-are-losing-their-ability-to-recover”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-17 08:29:54″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-17 14:29:54″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910151″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-17-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/californias-forests-are-losing-their-ability-to-recover/”,”author_name”:”Katherine Bucko”,”author_url”:”http://Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/17082923/California-forest-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:7952,”height”:5304,”file”:”2022/07/California-forest.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”California-forest-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”California-forest-1024×683.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:683,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”California-forest-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”California-forest-768×512.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:512,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”California-forest-1536×1025.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1025,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”California-forest-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”California-forest-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”California-forest-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”California-forest-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”California-forest-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”California-forest-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”California-forest-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”The state of California relies on its forests to help…”},{“ID”:1910149,”post_author”:”63″,”post_date”:”2022-07-17 08:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-17 14:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eJust like riding a bike, once we learn and retain skills, we rarely have to relearn them. Most studies on learning and long-term u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/the-ocean-is-losing-its-memory-and-becoming-less-predictable/”u003ememoryu003c/au003e in the wild have focused on a handful of animal species. Now, researchers at the u003ca href=”https://stri.si.edu/”u003eSmithsonian Tropical Research Instituteu003c/au003e (STRI) share the first report of long-term memory in frog-eating bats.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Frog-eating bats are an excellent emerging model organism for studying cognitive and sensory ecology, learning plays a big part in their lives,” explained study lead author M. May Dixon.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhen hunting frogs, the bat’s can identify the frog calls that indicate a frog is good to eat, compared to the calls that indicate a frog is poisonous, or even too big to carry.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFor the study, 49 wild bats were trained to respond to ringtones played through speakers. When responding to two of the tones, a reward of fish was found, but three other tones were associated with no reward.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe bats quickly learned when ringtones indicated a snack and ignored the ones that did not. The bats were then microchipped and released back into Panama’s Soberania National Park.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers recaptured some of the trained bats. When they played the experimental sounds again, the bats recognized and responded to the reward ringtones – even four years later.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe ringtones sounded like the ping of a text message and the beep of a car being unlocked. Using human-generated sounds ensured that they wouldn’t be heard in nature.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAs for the unrewarded sounds, the experts played one of them to the recaptured bats, and six of eight bats approached it.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“It’s possible that they remember the extinguished sound, but enough time had gone by that they thought to check it out once more,” said Dixon. “Or it’s possible that they couldn’t remember the exact difference between the ringtones, and that extinguished sound was close enough to the rewarded one that they decided to check that out too. Sort of like a generalization of memory.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eTo make sure that the bats were not responding to every sound they heard, a pure tone was played. Most of the bats did not fly to it, but only twitched their ears.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis experiment raises more questions on how memory works in bats and other animals, including the metabolic cost of remembering.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“I’m interested in memory capacity in animals and what causes long-term or short-term memories, what ecological conditions select for different memory lengths, what is important to remember and to forget,” explained Dixon. “But studying long-term memory is very difficult, because it takes a long time by definition. And testing memory in captive animals, even if it’s more convenient, isn’t necessarily representative of what animals can remember in the wild.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“STRI has been the basis for so much research done with bats. They have gathered a large database on frog-eating bats, on experiments done with bats, what stimulus have been used, so if you capture a bat that has been caught before, you already have its whole history. There are few places in the world where you can have that amount of detail.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“I went from liking bats but not thinking they were very interesting, to realizing they are very complex little creatures, with deep personalities and very engaging ways of interacting with the world.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://www.cell.com/current-biology/home”u003eu003cemu003eCurrent Biologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:katherinebucko@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eKatherine Buckou003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Wild bats have a long-term memory of sounds”,”post_excerpt”:”Now, researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) share the first report of long-term memory in frog-eating bats.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”wild-bats-have-a-long-term-memory-of-sounds”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-17 08:17:25″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-17 14:17:25″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910149″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-17-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/wild-bats-have-a-long-term-memory-of-sounds/”,”author_name”:”Katherine Bucko”,”author_url”:”http://Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/17081639/Bats-sounds-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1707,”file”:”2022/07/Bats-sounds-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-1024×683.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:683,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-768×512.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:512,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-1536×1024.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1024,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-2048×1366.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1366,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Bats-sounds-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Bats-sounds.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Just like riding a bike, once we learn and retain…”},{“ID”:1910142,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-17 05:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-17 11:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eScientists have long thought that conscious awareness of past personal experiences is the exclusive domain of humans. However, a recent study led by the u003ca href=”https://www.buffalo.edu/”u003eUniversity at Buffalou003c/au003e (UB) has now found that u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/dogs-have-an-intuitive-understanding-of-physics/”u003edogsu003c/au003e are capable of learning the instruction “do that again,” and can flexibly access memories of their own recent actions, which are cognitive abilities they were not previously known to possess.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We found that dogs could be trained to repeat specific actions on cue, and then take what they’d learned and apply it to actions they had never been asked to repeat,” said study lead author Allison Scagel, who conducted the study as a doctoral student in Psychology at UB. “Our findings showed that they were able to apply the concept of repetition to new situations. More generally, we found evidence that dogs are capable of forming abstract concepts […] placing them in an expanding category of other animals that includes bottlenose dolphins and chimpanzees.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers worked with three dogs – a male long-haired chihuahua and two female golden retrievers – to test whether they could voluntarily think back to what they had just been doing and repeat those actions. In a first step, the experimenters used traditional dog training based on cues and responses to teach the animals to follow simple cues such as spinning in a circle, lying down, or walking around an object.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThen, they taught the dogs a separate repeat cue – the word “again” accompanied by a hand gesture – which instructed them to reproduce the action they had just completed. In order to asses whether the dogs have managed to actually learn a general concept of repeating recent actions, they were asked to repeat new actions that they had not been asked to repeat before. Despite never being asked to repeat such actions, all the dogs successfully passed the test.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Dogs can do more than learn the relationship between a person’s cue and which specific trick they should perform,” said Dr. Scagel. “They can understand the concept of repetition: whatever you just did, do that again. It can apply to anything they do.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“This is an important step toward a greater understanding of how other species form abstract concepts. And we’re learning that humans aren’t that cognitively unique after all,” she concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the u003ca href=”https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2022-45661-001″u003eu003cemu003eJournal of Comparative Psychologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Dogs can be prompted to repeat their recent actions”,”post_excerpt”:”a recent study led by the University at Buffalo (UB) has now found that dogs are capable of learning the instruction “do that again,” and can flexibly access memories of their own recent actions”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”dogs-can-be-prompted-to-repeat-their-recent-actions”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-17 05:48:41″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-17 11:48:41″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910142″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-17-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/dogs-can-be-prompted-to-repeat-their-recent-actions/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/17054348/Dog-actions-scaled.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:2069,”file”:”2022/07/Dog-actions-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Dog-actions-300×242.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:242,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Dog-actions-1024×827.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:827,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Dog-actions-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Dog-actions-768×621.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:621,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Dog-actions-1536×1241.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1241,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Dog-actions.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Scientists have long thought that conscious awareness of past personal…”},{“ID”:1910137,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-07-16 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-07-16 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA team of researchers led by u003ca href=”https://www.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/en”u003eHiroshima Universityu003c/au003e in Japan has investigated muscle gain in cultured human skeletal muscle cells infused with serum from hibernating u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/black-bears-have-a-surprisingly-simple-gut-microbiome/”u003eblack bearsu003c/au003e. The study confirmed that key factors activated in these animals’ blood during winter trigger their amazing capacity to prevent muscle atrophy despite months of inactivity.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOver the fall and winter, hibernating bears can lie still for five to seven months inside their dens without eating or drinking anything. While in humans, only three weeks of inactivity is enough to cause muscle mass loss that could lead to sedentary lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes or even early death, bears can survive their hibernation with limited muscle loss, minimal metabolic dysfunction, and intact physical functions.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The ‘use it or lose it’ phenomenon is a well-accepted physiological principle for the skeletal muscle, which is highly plastic in response to functional demands. Disuse typically leads to skeletal muscle loss and metabolic dysfunction in many animal species, including humans,” said study first author Mitsunori Miyazaki, an associate professor of Integrative Physiology at Hiroshima University.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“In contrast, hibernating animals are likely better described to be under the ‘no use, but no lose’ phenomenon, in that there is potential resistance to muscle atrophy during continued disuse conditions.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eProfessor Miyazaki and his colleagues discovered that the serum drawn from the blood of hibernating Japanese black bears weakened the “destruction mechanism” controlling muscular degeneration. After only 24 hours of treatment with this serum, the cultured human muscle cells showed significant protein growth – an increase that was not seen in cultured muscle cells infused with serum collected from bears during their active summer season.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAlthough the scientists managed to identify certain physiological factors that may be responsible for this phenomenon – such as the suppressed expression of MuRF1 (Muscle RING-finger protein-1), the switch triggering the shredding of unused muscles, or the increased levels of the growth factor hormone IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) in the hibernating bear serum – the exact mechanisms and blood components that protect muscle mass during hibernation have not yet been fully identified.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We have indicated that ‘some factor’ present in hibernating bear serum may regulate protein metabolism in cultured human skeletal muscle cells and contribute to the maintenance of muscle mass. However, the identification of this ‘factor’ has not yet been achieved,” Professor Miyazaki said.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“By identifying this ‘factor’ in hibernating bear serum and clarifying the unexplored mechanism behind ‘muscles that do not weaken even without use’ in hibernating animals, it is possible to develop effective rehabilitation strategies in humans and prevent becoming bedridden in the future,” he concluded.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0263085″u003eu003cemu003ePLoS ONEu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”How hibernating bears could help humans prevent muscle loss”,”post_excerpt”:”Over the fall and winter, hibernating bears can lie still for five to seven months inside their dens without eating or drinking anything”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”how-hibernating-bears-could-help-humans-prevent-muscle-loss”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-07-16 10:18:27″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-07-16 16:18:27″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1910137″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”07-16-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/how-hibernating-bears-could-help-humans-prevent-muscle-loss/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/07/16101520/Hibernating-bears-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1837,”file”:”2022/07/Hibernating-bears-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-300×215.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:215,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-1024×735.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:735,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-768×551.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:551,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-1536×1102.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1102,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-2048×1469.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1469,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Hibernating-bears-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Hibernating-bears.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”A team of researchers led by Hiroshima University in Japan…”}]}}},”page”:”/news/[slug]”,”query”:{“slug”:”robot-dog-sheds-new-light-on-how-animals-learn-to-walk”},”buildId”:”AygoyP4NevbBrI7kTvaTt”,”isFallback”:false,”gssp”:true,”appGip”:true,”scriptLoader”:[]}