Diabetes is the most variable that influences the number of deaths from heart attacks

The news – Several factors increase the risk of heart attacks, such as high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), obesity, abnormal cholesterol levels, high blood pressure (hypertension), and smoking. A study conducted in Brazil and reported in an article published in the magazine PLUS ONE Measure the effect of these factors. The researchers analyzed data on the Brazilian population collected between 2005 and 2017, determining the number of deaths attributed to each risk factor. The aim of the study was to contribute to the development of more effective strategies to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, which have long been the leading causes of death in Brazil.

The study, supported by FAPESP, determined the effect of each factor associated with death from cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia is associated with five to 10 times more than other factors.

The dataset came from government sources such as the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Social Development, IBGE, and the Office for National Statistics, as well as foreign sources such as the Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) and the University of Washington Institute for Health Metrics. and Evaluation (IHME).

“Regardless of which control we used—and we tested variables, statistical models, and methods of various kinds—diabetes was also associated with cardiovascular mortality. Moreover, the association was not limited to the year analyzed but persisted for up to a decade.” ” Renato Gasparone of the authors Powered by FAPESP. Gaspar conducts postdoctoral research in the Vascular Biology Laboratory of the Heart Institute (InCor) attached to the University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FM-USP).

Previous research came up with an equation to calculate the number of deaths that were prevented or postponed due to changes in risk factors. Based on this, the researchers calculated the “early” death rate compared to life expectancy, and concluded that about 5,000 people would not die of cardiovascular disease in the analyzed period if the incidence of diabetes was lower. On the other hand, at least 17,000 deaths were averted by reducing smoking during the 12 years involved.

According to the authors, the findings provide evidence that smoking reduction strategies were key to decreasing mortality from cardiovascular disease.

The differences between men and women were also important to the scientists, who noted that the gender differences replicated the findings of other studies showing that diabetes and high blood sugar are more important risk factors for women than for men.

Social and Economic Impact

Mortality and CVD decreased by 21% and 8%, respectively, between 2005 and 2017 in Brazil, mainly due to improved access to basic health care as well as reduction in smoking. This finding took into account the importance of high blood pressure, which is often associated with heart disease. However, the contribution of hyperglycemia was seven times that of hypertension, possibly because access to the universal health service and better primary care coverage raised hypertension control in the general population to a higher level.

This analysis was confirmed by the finding that the association between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease mortality was independent of socioeconomic status and access to health care. The researchers inserted covariates into the models analyzed, adjusting for family income, government cash transfer programs such as the Bolsa Família, GDP (Gross Domestic Product per capita), number of physicians per 1,000 population and primary care coverage.

“Besides the importance of increasing incomes, reducing inequality and poverty, and improving access and quality of health care, we must look at diabetes and hyperglycemia in a specific way,” Gaspard said, noting that excessive consumption of sugar and related issues are not discussed on the widespread in Brazil. “We need a nutrition education policy. We should debate whether it is worth placing warnings on foods high in sugar, as we already do on cigarette packs, or imposing an additional tax on manufacturers to reduce the amount of sugar in these products. Other countries are discussing such things and we should do it here.”

To help combat cardiovascular disease, health policy should aim squarely at reducing the prevalence of hyperglycemia, through nutritional education, restrictions on foods and beverages containing added sugar or improving access to new classes of drugs that reduce diabetes. The risks of fatal heart attacks faced by diabetics, he said.

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