Monkeypox outbreak highlights need for One Health’s approach to preventing zoonoses in the future

Newswise — The current global outbreak of monkeypox is another warning for adopting a preventive approach, One Health, to reduce the risk of future emergence of known and unknown zoonoses, professors say Diana Bell And the Andrew Cunningham.

Scientists wrote a comment published in Cappy One Health Journal, says the scientist “could not ignore another warning” like the one given by monkeypox seen so far 62,406 cases in 104 countries and 19 deaths*.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in patients with smallpox, although less clinically severe.

With the eradication of smallpox in 1980 and the subsequent discontinuation of smallpox vaccination, monkeypox emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus for public health, according to the World Health Organization. Monkeypox occurs primarily in central and western Africa, often near tropical rainforests, and has increasingly appeared in urban areas. A group of African rodents appears to be the natural animal host for monkeypox virus.

Professor Bell, Professor of Conservation Biology at University of East Anglia (UEA) and Professor Cunningham, Deputy Director of Science at ZSL’s Institute of ZoologyZSL (Zoological Society of London), says that the unintended consequence of eradicating smallpox – and ending the smallpox vaccination campaign – was “making the world’s population immune-naive to orthopoxvirus infection for the first time in history.”

Professors Bell and Cunningham, in their commentary, argue: “This occurred at a time when the majority of people worldwide were living in densely populated cities and when worldwide connectivity was never higher, both of which facilitate the emergence and spread of infectious diseases.”

“It is not surprising, then, that new infections with zoonotic orthopoxvirus have been increasing in recent years, or that a worldwide outbreak of human monkeypox has occurred.”

“One Health’s approach, including consideration of land use change and the trade in bushmeat and exotic pets, is required to prevent the chances of monkeypox, or diseases caused by orthopoxviruses, and to respond quickly and effectively to any outbreak in order to limit its spread.”

The researchers highlighted three examples where monkeypox has pathways to spread and where a One Health approach to prevention is particularly needed – land-use change, bushmeat trade and pet trade.

Regarding the bushmeat trade, for example, Professors Cunningham and Bell suggest that the Gambian giant rat, a potential carrier of monkeypox virus, is “usually eaten because of its relatively large size and is therefore of particular interest as it is a potential source of zoonoses”.

They add that despite extensive legislation banning the import of endangered species, or indeed any wild meat from Africa, large quantities of bushmeat are smuggled via personal baggage to major European and American cities on passenger flights from West and Central African countries where monkeypox is endemic. In which. wild animals.

Regarding the pet trade, scientists say the 2003 outbreak of monkeypox in six US states was due to a shipment of 800 live small mammals imported from Ghana to Texas. Viral testing of some of these animals revealed MPV infection in three cells, two corded squirrels, and at least one giant gambian mouse.

Professors Bell Cunningham stated: “Demand is global with transcontinental smuggling encompassing South America and Asia as well as Africa and Europe, fueling crises of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services and escalating the risk of human exposure to known and unknown pathogens harbored by wildlife along trade routes and within destination countries. “.

They conclude by suggesting that One Health’s approach to preventing further outbreaks of zoonoses could include promoting alternatives to bushmeat, routinely vaccinating people at high risk of exposure and educating people about health procedures such as wearing gloves when handling live and dead wild animals.

CABI One Health Magazine

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