The relationship between toxoplasmosis infection and mental disorders: a cross-sectional study in China

T. Gundy Infection is widespread all over the world, and recent studies have shown that the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma Antibody ranges from 10 to 80%. seroprevalence of Toxoplasma The incidence in China is relatively low, ranging from 2.3% to 35.6% among different populations and geographical regions8. Several studies found a higher seroprevalence of T. Gundy Infection in psychiatric patients9And the1011and search for the relationship between T. Gundy Infection and mental disorders have become a hot topic. China has a population of 1.4 billion, the latest research12 It shows that the weighted prevalence of 12-month mental disorders (excluding dementia) in China is 9.3% (95% CI 5.4–13.3), and the weighted lifetime prevalence is 16.6% (95% CI 13.0–20.2). Given the large number of mentally ill patients in China, research on the epidemiological status of T. Gundy Infection and the relationship between mental illness and T. Gundy Infection is especially important and necessary.

The results of the current study showed that anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in both psychiatric patients and the general population were at low levels in the study area8, 13, 14.

Positive rate of antigenToxoplasma IgG antibody in psychiatric patients was higher than that in the general population, which is similar to a previous study in Weihai, Shandong Province, between 2011 and 201313. The results indicate that psychiatric patients in the study area should pay attention to detecting T. Gundy infection. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of positive antigensToxoplasma IgM antibodies between the general population and psychiatric patients, indicating that there is no difference in acute/recent infection of T. Gundy among the general population and psychiatric patients in this study area. seroprevalence of antigensToxoplasma The antibody in psychiatric patients suggests that T. Gundy Infection in psychiatric patients in the study area is often recessive or long-standing. However, the results are inconsistent with some research. search wang14 In Zhejiang, China, seropositivity rates for antigens have been shown to be higherToxoplasma IgG antibodies and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were significantly higher in the psychiatric patients than in the non-psychotic control group, which may indicate geographic differences in the epidemiological status of T. Gundy Infection in psychiatric patients.

In this study, the positive rate of antigens wasToxoplasma IgM antibodies in both the general population and in mentally ill patients were lower than the results published in China (Chen et al., 2019; Pan, M., et al., 2017; Chen, X., et al., 2019) . This value is particularly lower than the search results in the vicinity (Weihai) (Cong et al., 2015). A large number of investigations have focused on the relationship between T. Gundy infection and psychiatric disorders, but the results of these studies are inconsistent. Several studies have reported this T. Gundy Seropositivity is associated with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, suicide, aggression, and impulsivity.15thAnd the16And the1718. However, others have failed to demonstrate significant associations between psychiatric disorders and toxoplasmosis19, 20. opposite-Toxoplasma IgM antibody is a marker of acute/recent exposure, persistent infection, or reinfection21While previous studies focused on the fight againstToxoplasma IgG antibodies, a sign of lifelong or latent exposure T. Gundy infection and have a higher positivity rate of IgM antibodies. Recent research has found that this is chronic T. Gundy Infection leads to cortical neurodegeneration and results in the interaction of CX3CL1, complement and microglia, thus dividing and clearing degenerated neurons.22. Therefore, the analysis of counterToxoplasma The IgG antibody in this study is considered the most useful.

After further analysis and comparison of different types of mental illness, the current study found that mania, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and recurrent depressive disorder were all associated with positive rates of antidepressants.Toxoplasma Antibodies, except for dissociative depressive disorder. seroprevalence of T. Gundy Infection in patients with bipolar disorder was significantly different from that in the general population, which is consistent with the results of a newly published meta-analysis.23,24. However, some articles7, 19, 25 It indicates that bipolar disorder is not associated with it T. Gundy infection. Therefore, the relationship between bipolar disorder and T. Gundy The infection remains controversial, and more research is needed.

A large amount of research indicates a link between T. Gundy infection and schizophrenia, T. Gundy Becoming a potentially relevant pathogen in some cases of schizophrenia26And the2728And recent studies indicate that T. Gundy Infection may be an essential component of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia29This is consistent with our study, but there are also some studies that have come to the opposite conclusion. More rigorous studies from epidemiological studies to mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the relationship between schizophrenia and T. Gundy infection.

Most research has shown an absencee There is an association between depression and T. Gundy infection30And the3132. However, there is a possible association between depression/recurrent depressive disorder and T. Gundy Infection was found in this study, and the same result was also found in the Alvarado-Esquivel study 33,34. More research on the relationship between T. Gundy Infection and depression are needed to explain the different conclusions. In addition to, T. Gundy Infection affects susceptibility to and severity of depression in children, adolescents, and pregnant women35,36Depressed patients should pay attention to T. Gundy infection. This study found a possible relationship between mania and T. Gundy infection, but the current research on the relationship between mania and T. Gundy Infection is still not enough to draw definitive conclusions, more attention should be paid to patients with mania.

Current research has shown that people who live in rural areas are at increased risk of contracting toxoplasmosis37, but no consistent results were found in our study. Studies have found differences in the seroprevalence of antigensToxoplasma Among males and females with psychosis38, which is inconsistent with our study. More research is needed to explain these phenomena. In this study, psychiatric patients had the lowest positive rate ofToxoplasma IgG antibodies are in the 21-40 age group, indicating that this age group has the lowest risk T. Gundy Infection that may be due to the strength of the body and immunity in this age group.

The subjects included in this study are mainly from the southwestern regions of Shandong Province and parts of Henan and Jiangsu Province, with a population of about 40 million in the study area. Shandong Daizhuang Hospital is the largest specialized psychiatric hospital in Shandong Province; Therefore, this study can accurately reflect the condition of T. Gundy Infection of psychiatric patients in the study area, to some extent, even in eastern China. The current study is a cross-sectional study, and future cohort studies should be conducted to elucidate the interconnection of psychiatric disorders and T. Gundy infection.

The current study was mainly analyzed T. Gundy Incidence in psychiatric inpatients due to the difficulty of collecting baseline data from the general population and outpatient psychiatric patients. The population density in the study area is high, and the sample size included is relatively small. Since only age information for the general population is available, more detailed personal information for the general population cannot be obtained for further analysis, and investigations with larger sample size and different populations must be conducted to assess multiple influencing factors. It is widely believed that pregnant women should not have cats39However, research suggests that cat ownership during pregnancy or early childhood does not increase the risk of later psychotic experiences in adolescents.40. How related are cats T. Gundy Incidence in patients with mental illness should be confirmed in future studies. Previous studies suggested thatToxoplasma Antibody seropositivity persists throughout life41but as a search forToxoplasma Antibodies and population-based analyzes are increasing, and some studies have suggested that continued exposure to T. Gundy Required to maintain antibody levels42; Therefore, againstToxoplasma Antibody testing should be used as a routine test to assess infection status and monitor treatment in patients with mental illness.

At present, there have been many studies on the relationship between T. Gundy Infection and mental disorders, there are still many controversies and doubts. First, the results are very different. This may be due to different results for people in different regions. Second, it is difficult to determine and explain the causal relationship between them T. Gundy Infection and mental disorders. From the perspective of aetiology and pathogenic mechanism, it is assumed that T. Gundy The infection will cause mental illness. From an epidemiological perspective, it is assumed that mentally ill patients are more likely to be affected T. Gundy Infection due to poor health awareness or reduced immunity. Therefore, search for the relationship between mental disorders and T. Gundy The infection must be analyzed in detail.

In short, the seropositivity rate T. Gundy or infection rate T. Gundy In the population in this region it is maintained at a low level, but the seropositivity rate T. Gundy or infection rate T. Gundy In patients with mental illness it is maintained at a level higher than that in the general population. May be associated with age and various types of mental illness T. Gundy infection. More and rigorous scientific research from the population and laboratories in our study area is needed to determine the relationship between T. Gundy Infection and mental disorders, especially mania, schizophrenia, depression and recurrent depressive disorder.